In this article, Today, we will learn what is the operating system and its types, Function of Operating System and Why We Need Os? As we know that the operating system is system software which contains the programs loaded while booting the computer.

It is also important for running other applications. The operating system works as an interface between the user, application program, hardware, and system peripherals.

An operating system consists of a group of programs that control coordinate, and conduct the activities of various components of a computer system. It is a program that works as an interface between user and hardware.

Through this interface, the user uses the computer’s hardware. An operating system (OS) is an organized collection of specialized programs that control the proper operation of a computer. This is a program that should be on any computer for proper booting.


There are two types of operating systems

  1. Network operating system (NOS)
  2. Standalone desktop operating system

For Examples:

  • Windows Server 2012
  • Windows Server 2008
  • Windows Server 2003
  • Unix
  • Linux
  • NetWare
  • Windows 10
  • Windows 8/8.1
  • Windows 7
  • Windows XP Professional
  • Windows 2000 Professional
  • Windows 95/98
  • MS-DOS

The operating system divided into two parts based on the number of users:

Single User Operating System:

This is a type of operating system that allows only one user to access at a time. The operating system used for a personal computer (PC) is a single-user OS designed to manage one task at a time. For Examples: MS-DOS, Windows 3X, Windows 95/97/98, etc.

Multi-User Operating System: 

This operating system allows multiple users to access a computer system simultaneously. It is used in computer networks that allow multiple users to access the same data and applications at the same time. For Examples: Window 10/8/7, Linux based OS, Mac OS, Ubuntu, Unix, etc.

Depending on the mode of working, they classified into the following parts:

function of operating system

Command Line Interface(CLI):

Command Line Interface (CLI) also known as Character User Interface (CUI), CLI is an interface by which have a mechanism to interact with a computer system by typing. Commands are used by the user to perform specific tasks, and these commands make it easier to operate automatically.

Graphical User Interface:

It is a computer program that enables a person to communicate with a computer using symbols, visuals, and pointing devices. Xerox Corporation designed the first graphical user interface in the 1970s. We use devices with graphical user interfaces daily, such as can be found in MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices, etc.


The operating system is a large and complex software consisting of many components. It is responsible for managing all the resources associated with the computer system.

An operating system provides the following functions for the convenience of users.

  • Process Management: Process is a program that is executed by the processor (CPU) in a computer. The operating system handles the deletion of processes and also manages the scheduling and synchronization of a process. Process management is an important part of an operating system that enables the planning, controlling, and performance activities of a process.
  • Memory Management: Memory management of the operating system takes care of allocation and de-allocation of main memory for various processes. Managing primary memory is managing, sharing, and minimizing memory access time. It keeps track of memory usage and performs memory management for the performance of the entire system.
  • File Management: File management module of the operating system transfers files with various storage devices. File management includes creating and deleting both files and directories, allocating space for files, keeping backups, securing, and accessing files easily.
  • Input / Output Management: Through the input/output management module, the computer assigns various input and output devices, namely terminals, printers, disk drives, tape drives, etc. The input/output module controls all devices, keeps track of IO requests, ensures that devices are working efficiently and correctly.

Why We Need Os?

As we know, there is no existence of a computer without an operating system computer is like an empty box. If the operating system (OS) is not installed in your Hardware, then the connection between your keyboard, monitor, mouse, CPU, etc., not be installed.

The operating system establishes the relationship between all the hardware components, by which the user does his work without tension. All the tasks are done by it, such as memory management, multiprocessing, file management, multi-tasking, multi-threading, input/output management, etc.


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